Singular and Plural Noun Flashcards

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How to Form Plural Nouns?

Plural Noun Rules
There are many plural noun rules, and because we use nouns so frequently when writing, it’s important to know all of them! The correct spelling of plurals usually depends on what letter the singular noun ends in.
1. To make regular nouns plural, add s to the end.
bat – bats
house – houses
2. If the singular noun ends in s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, or -z, add es to the end to make it plural.
bus – buses
tax – taxes
3. In some cases, singular nouns ending in -s or -z, require that you double the -s or -z prior to adding the -es for pluralization.
gas –gasses
4. If the noun ends with f or fe, the f is often changed to ve before adding the -s to form the plural version.
wife – wives
wolf – wolves
Exceptions:
roof – roofs
belief – beliefs
chef – chefs
chief – chiefs
5. If a singular noun ends in y and the letter before the -y is a consonant, change the ending to ies to make the noun plural.
city – cities
puppy – puppies
6.  If the singular noun ends in -y and the letter before the -y is a vowel, simply add an -s to make it plural.
ray – rays
boy – boys
7. If the singular noun ends in o, add es to make it plural.
potato – potatoes
tomato – tomatoes
Exceptions:
photo – photos
piano – pianos
With the unique word volcano, you can apply the standard pluralization for words that end in -o or not. It’s your choice! Both of the following are correct:
volcanoes
volcanos
8. If the singular noun ends in us, the plural ending is frequently i.
cactus – cacti
alumnus - alumni
9. If the singular noun ends in is, the plural ending is es.
analysis – analyses
ellipsis – ellipses
10. If the singular noun ends in on, the plural ending is a.
phenomenon – phenomena
criterion – criteria 
11. Some nouns don’t change at all when they’re pluralized.
sheep – sheep
series – series
species – species
deer –deer
Irregular nouns follow no specific rules, so it’s best to memorize these or look up the proper pluralization in the dictionary.
child – children
goose – geese
man – men
woman – women
tooth – teeth
foot – feet
mouse – mice
person – people


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